Moldova’s demographics

The female population exceeds the male one

There are more women than men in Moldova, the proportion being 100 women to 93 men. This ratio varies by age group. Men predominate in the 0-14 and 15-34 age groups: 106 men per 100 women and 104 men per 100 women, respectively. The differences are more pronounced among the population aged 35 to 64 and 65 and over, with respectively 100 women for 90 men and 100 women for 61 men.

Women’s life expectancy is higher than that of men
On average, women live 8 years longer than men, with life expectancy at birth of 76.2 years for women and 68.1 years for men. This difference is explained by the higher rate of premature mortality among men. The mortality rate by area of ​​residence determines some differences between urban and rural in terms of average life span. Men in urban areas live on average five years longer than those in rural communities, in the case of women, the difference being 3.7 years.

Women get married earlier than men

The average age of women at first marriage is 25.6 years and men – 28.3 years. Most of the men who married in 2016 belonged to the age group 25-29 (39.3%), women – to the age group 20-24 (38.4%). Marriages before the age of 20 are more common in rural areas.82.1% of men and 83.0% of women who married in 2016 had been single before marriage. More divorced men (17.0%) remarry than women (15.6%).

Women are more educated than men
 Women aged 25 to 64 have a higher level of education than men. The largest gap is in higher education – 23.0% of women reached this level compared to 17.6% of men. Most of the population holds a vocational degree – 59.1% of men and 55.6% of women.Men leave the education system sooner than women to enter the labor market. The participation rate in continuing vocational training programs is very low (1.3% – women and 0.4% – men). The employment rate of women is lower than that of men The rate of women (50.3%) in the labor force is almost equal to that of men (49.7%). However, the employment rate for women is lower (39.0%) than for men (43.0%).Working women have a higher level of education than men: 27.2% of women have reached the higher level of education and 16.9% hold a vocational training diploma, the respective indices relating to men being 21.5% and 9.9%.

Women work mainly in the service sector
The breakdown by economic sector reveals a higher proportion of women in the service sector (59.0% women and 41.0% men). Women are less present in the agricultural sector (45.4%), in industry (46.4%) and in construction (8.2%), but they are very present in the trade (57.2% ), hotels and restaurants (68.2%), education (79.9%), health services (81.4%).

Women earn less than men
Women’s incomes are 14.5% lower than men’s (85.5% of men’s average wage). In numerical terms, this difference amounts to about 783 lei, women with an average salary of 4631.4 lei and men – 5414.4 lei.
The proportion of managers is higher than that of women leaders at all levels Of all management positions at all levels, 53.2% are held by men and 46.8% by women. Between 2011 and 2016, the difference between these percentages has significantly decreased from 20 to 6 percentage points.
Women head mainly small (31.7%) and medium-sized enterprises (22.6%), while only 17.5% of companies with more than 50 employees are female-headed.
Women remain underrepresented in the decision-making process – out of the total of 101 members of Parliament, there are only 21 women. The share of women in the total number of judges was 47.7% in 2016.
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